Organic learning engages undergraduates in discovering new knowledge based on prior learning through variety of guided activities that stimulate inquiry-based learning and critical thinking in the research process. Some activities include searching, browsing, accessing, gathering, evaluating, assessing, reflecting, organizing, linking, and synthesizing. Learning how to access information by using a variety of search strategies as well as delivery platforms such as Google, discovery, individual databases, and the internet can be overwhelming and challenging. When students discover how to search and access desired sources through a variety of explicitly designed information literacy instructions with clearly defined learning outcomes, they take ownership of developing their learning and research skills. Through organic learning, they experience lightbulb moments, asking questions, discussing topics, and then searching again for more information. Organic learning unconsciously involves students in self-education, engaging them in the research process without pressuring them to practice redundant, rote exercises. Often undergraduates encounter difficulty in conceptualizing the research process as complex and multi-faceted. The authors argue that organic learning strategies to activate prior learning that builds advanced searching skills and increase new scholarly knowledge.
Ashton-Warner, S. (1986). Teacher. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (Originally published 1963).
Association of College & Research Libraries. (2016, January 11). Framework for information literacy for higher education. In Guidelines, Standards, and Frameworks. Retrieved May 15, 2018, from http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/issues/infolit/Framework_ILHE.pdf
Bandura, A. (1999). Exercise of personal and collective efficacy in changing societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in Changing Societies (pp. 1-45). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. (Originally published 1997).
Bruner, J. S. (1957). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Bruner, J. S. (1960). The Process of Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31, 21-32.
Bruner, J. S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction, Cambridge, Mass.: Belkapp Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1973). The relevance of education. New York: Norton.
Buck, S., & Steffy, C. (2013). Promising practices in instruction of discovery tools. Communications in Information Literacy, 7(1), 66-80. https://doi-org.www.library.manhattan.edu/10.15760/comminfolit.2013.7.1.135
Carey, M.P., & Forsyth, A.D. (2019). Teaching tip sheet: Self-efficacy. In American Psychological Association: Public Interest Directorate. Retrieved June 9, 2019, from https://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/education/self-efficacy
Clark, M. (2017). Imposed-inquiry information-seeking self-efficacy and performance of college students: A review of the literature. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 43(5), 417-422. doi: org/10.1016/j.acalib.2017.05.001
Cohen, M. E. (2016). The flipped classroom as a tool for engaging discipline faculty in collaboration: A case study in library-business collaboration. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 22(1), 5-23. doi:10.1080/13614533.2015.1073162
Cooperstein, S. E., & Kocevar-Weidinger, E. (2004). Beyond active learning: A constructivist approach to learning. Reference Services Review, 32(2), 141-148. doi: 10.1108/00907320410537658
Coorey, J. (2016). Active learning methods and technology: Strategies for design education. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 35(3), 337-347. doi:10.1111/jade.12112
D’Angour, A. (2013). Leisure and play in Plato's teaching and philosophy of learning. American Journal of Play, 5(3), 293-307. Retrieved on March 29, 2018, from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1016076.pdf
Dewey, J. (1910). How We Think. Boston: D.C. Heath.
Drew, S. (2001) Student perceptions of what helps them learn and develop in higher education. Teaching in Higher Education, 6(3), pp. 309–331. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510120061197
Elder, G. (1999). Life trajectories in changing societies. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in Changing Societies (pp. 46-68). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. (Originally published 1997).
Elzen, A.M.V., & Roush, J. (Spring, 2013). Brawling in the library: Gaming programs for impactful outreach and instruction at an academic library. Library Trends, 61(4), 802-813. doi:10.1353/lib.2013.0016
Ferster, C. B., & Skinner, B. F. (1957). Schedules of reinforcement. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
Finch, J. L., & Jefferson, R. N. (2013). Designing authentic learning tasks for online library instruction. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(2), 181-188. doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2012.10.005
Gordon, C. A. (2010). The culture of inquiry in school libraries. School Libraries Worldwide, 16(1), 73. Retrieved March 28, 2018, from: https://search-proquest-com.www.library.manhattan.edu/docview/217752221?pq-origsite=gscholar
Hammer, D. (1997). Discovery learning and discovery teaching. Cognition and Instruction, 15(4), 485-529. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.www.library.manhattan.edu/stable/3233776
Hunnicutt, B. K. (1990). Leisure and play in Plato's teaching and philosophy of learning.
Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12(2), 221-227. doi.org/10.1080/01490409009513101
Isbell, D. (1995). Teaching writing and research as inseparable: a faculty-librarian teaching team. Reference Services Review, 23(4), 51–62. https://doi-org.lib2.bmcc.cuny.edu/10.1108/eb049264
Joyce, C. (2008). Venn diagrams. In ARBs: Assessment Resource Banks. Retrieved June 10, 2019, from https://arbs.nzcer.org.nz/venn-diagrams
Kim, J. (2016, November 16). The librarian on the teaching Team: An essential partnership. In Inside Higher Ed: Technology and Learning. Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/technology-and-learning/librarian-teaching-team
Lee, E., & Hannafin, M. (2016). A design framework for enhancing engagement in student-centered learning: Own it, learn it, and share it. Educational Technology Research & Development, 64(4), 707-734. doi:10.1007/s11423-015-9422-5
Lindstrom, J., & Shonrock, D.D. (2006). Faculty-librarian collaboration to achieve integration of information literacy. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 46(1), 18-23.
Lewin, K., & Lewin, G.W. (Ed.). (1948). Resolving Social Conflicts: Selected Papers on Group Dynamics. New York: Harper & Row.
Morrison, D. (2014, February 14). Is learning scientific or organic? In Online Learning Insights: A Place for Learning About Online Education. Retrieved May 1, 2019, from https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/2014/02/06/is-learning
Ozga, J., & Sukhnanden, L. (1998, July 1). Undergraduate non-completion: Developing an explanatory model. Higher Education Quarterly, 52(3), pp. 316–333. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2273.00100
Peterson, D. (2017, March 6). How ice breakers will make you a better teacher of adult students. In ThoughtCo. Retrieved April 3, 2019, from https://www.thoughtco.com/ice-breakers-make-you-better-teacher-31245scientific-or-organic/
Piaget, J. (1932). The Moral Judgment of the Child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul
Piaget, J. (1936). Origins of Intelligence in the Child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Piaget, J. (1945). Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. London: Heinemann.
Piaget, J. (1957). Construction of Reality in the Child. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Piaget, J. (2013). The Growth of Logical Thinking from Childhood to Adolescence. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315009674. (Originally published 1958).
Piaget, J., & Cook, M. T. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York, NY: International University Press.
Rivera, E. (2015). Using the flipped classroom model in your library instruction course. Reference Librarian, 56(1), 34–41. https://doi-org.lib2.bmcc.cuny.edu/10.1080/02763877.2015.977671
Scheerens, J. (2015). Educational Effectiveness and Ineffectiveness: A Critical Review of the Knowledge Base, p. 4. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral-proquest-com.rdas-proxy.mercy.edu
Skinner, B. F. (1938). The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. New York: Appleton-Century.
Skinner, B. F. (1948). ‘Superstition' in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38(2), 168-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0055873
Skinner, B. F. (1951). How to Teach Animals. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education.
Teaching Excellence in Adult Literacy Staff at the American Institutes for Research, U.S. Department of Department of Education. (2010). Student-centered learning [PDF]. In TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 6: Student-Centered Learning 2. Retrieved June 25, 2019, from https://lincs.ed.gov/sites/default/files/6%20_TEAL_Student-Centered.pdf
Thomas, G. (2013). Education: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press.
Thompson, N. (2000). Sylvia Ashton-Warner: Reclaiming personal meaning in literacy teaching. The English Journal, 89(3), 90-96. doi:10.2307/822103
Thoutenhoofd, E.D. & Pirrie, A. (2015). From self-regulation to learning to learn: Observations on the construction of self and learning. British Educational Research Journal, 41(1), 72-84. doi: 10.1002/berj.3128
Tompo, B., Ahmad, A., & Muris, M. (2016). The development of discovery-inquiry learning model to reduce the science misconceptions of junior high school students. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(12), 5676-5686. Retrieved March 28, 2018, from: http://www.ijese.net/makale/732
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (Eds.), The Collected Works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of General Psychology (pp. 39–285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.)
WETA Public Broadcasting. (2018). Exit slips. In Launching Young Readers! Reading Rockets. Retrieved April 3, 2019, from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/exit_slips
WETA Public Broadcasting. (2018). Anticipation guide. In Launching Young Readers! Reading Rockets. Retrieved April 3, 2019, from http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/anticipation_guide
Wingate, U. (2007). A framework for transition: Supporting ‘learning to learn’ in higher education. Higher Education Quarterly, 61(3), 391-405. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2273.2007.00361.x
Zimmerman, B. (1990). Self-regulating academic learning and achievement: The emergence of a social cognitive perspective. Educational Psychology Review, 2(2), 173-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01322178
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.